Implications of Trauma for School Responder Models provides an overview of trauma, symptoms of traumatic stress, and what schools can do to support students and create trauma-informed and trauma-sensitive environments to keep students with behavioral health conditions in school and out of the juvenile justice system.

The impact of trauma on judgment, decision-making, and emotional regulation processes can have significant implications for the types of behaviors that occur in school and may place students at risk for exclusionary discipline and juvenile justice involvement. Implementing a school responder model requires a trauma-informed approach that includes understanding trauma and its impact on learning and behavior, as well as how best to support students by connecting them with behavioral health services and supports.

The National Center for Youth Opportunity and Justice (NCYOJ) originally developed and maintained this resource. The NCYOJ was operated by Policy Research, Inc. and operated from 2001 to 2022 and was formerly known as the National Center for Mental Health and Juvenile Justice. The NCYOJ improved life opportunities for youth through systems and practice improvement initiatives.

This resource should be viewed as a reference document. It has not been updated since its publication. In addition, this document has not been made 508 compliant. If you would like a 508 compliant version of this document, please email

This resource was first shared in 2020.

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