Research and Evaluation

PRA is well known for its research standards, program assessments, evaluation studies, performance measurements, and data analysis. Our Institutional Review Board provides expert consultation and review on matters related to human subjects for all research and evaluation projects.

Our researchers structure data collection to evaluate program transformation, design research protocols, train staff, gather and analyze data, and present results in formats geared toward policymakers and funders.

Selected Research

Abreu, D., Parker, T. W., Noether, C. D., Steadman, H. J., & Case, B. (2017). Revising the paradigm for jail diversion for people with mental and substance use disorders: Intercept 0. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 35(5–6), 380–395.

Brandow, C. L., Swarbrick, M., & Nemec, P. B. (2020). Rethinking the causes and consequences of financial wellness for people with serious mental illnesses. Psychiatric Services, 71(1), 89–91.

Cacace, S., Smith, E. J., Cramer, R. J., Meca, A., & Desmarais, S. L. (2021). Military self-stigma as a mediator of the link between military identity and suicide risk. Military Psychology, 1–15.

Callahan, L., Cocozza, J., Steadman, H. J., & Tillman, S. (2012). A national survey of U.S. Juvenile mental health courts. Psychiatric Services, 63(2), 130–134.

Callahan, L., & Pinals, D. A. (2020). Challenges to reforming the competence to stand trial and competence restoration system. Psychiatric Services, 71(7), 691–697.

Callahan, L., Steadman, H. J., Tillman, S., & Vesselinov, R. (2013). A multi-site study of the use of sanctions and incentives in mental health courts. Law and Human Behavior, 37(1), 1–9.

Gilbert, A. R., Moser, L. L., Van Dorn, R. A., Swanson, J. W., Wilder, C. M., Robbins, P. C., Keator, K. J., Steadman, H. J., & Swartz, M. S. (2010). Reductions in arrest under assisted outpatient treatment in New York. Psychiatric Services, 61(10), 996–999.

Kauff, J. F., Clary, E., Lupfer, K. S., & Fischer, P. J. (2016). An evaluation of SOAR: Implementation and outcomes of an effort to improve access to SSI and SSDI. Psychiatric Services, 67(10), 1098–1102.

Krider, A. E., & Parker, T. W. (2021). COVID-19 tele-mental health: Innovative use in rural behavioral health and criminal justice settings. Journal of Rural Mental Health, 45(2), 86-94.

Lupfer, K., & Elder, J. (2016). SOAR Online Course increases capacity for assisting individuals with disabilities in the US. Frontiers in Public Health, 4.

Robbins, P. C., Keator, K. J., Steadman, H. J., Swanson, J. W., Wilder, C. M., & Swartz, M. S. (2010). Assisted outpatient treatment in New York: Regional differences in New York’s assisted outpatient treatment program. Psychiatric Services, 61(10), 970–975.

Steadman, H. J., Mulvey, E. P., Monahan, J., Robbins, P. C., Appelbaum, P. S., Grisso, T., Roth, L. H., & Silver, E. (1998). Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(5), 393.

Steadman, H. J., Osher, F. C., Robbins, P. C., Case, B., & Samuels, S. (2009). Prevalence of serious mental illness among jail inmates. Psychiatric Services, 60(6), 761–765.

Steadman, H. J., Redlich, A., Callahan, L., Robbins, P. C., & Vesselinov, R. (2011). Effect of mental health courts on arrests and jail days: A multisite study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(2), 167.

Steadman, H., Morrissey, J., & Parker, T. (2015). When political will is not enough: Jails, communities, and persons with mental health disorders. Delmar, NY: Policy Research Associates, Inc. Retrieved from:

Swarbrick, M., Nemec, P. B., Brandow, C. L., & Spagnolo, A. (2018). Strategies to promote walking among community-dwelling individuals with major mental disorders. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 56(3), 25–32.

Zottola, S. A., Desmarais, S. L., Lowder, E. M., & Duhart Clarke, S. E. (2021). Evaluating fairness of algorithmic risk assessment instruments: The problem with forcing dichotomies. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 009385482110405.